Heart defects are some of the most common health conditions among us humans. Holes are defects in the heart that are present at birth. Our heart has two sides which are separated by a wall called the septum and as well all know the heart pumps blood to the lungs for oxygen and then to the entire body. The function of the septum is to ensure that the types of blood do not get mixed. The meaning of hypokinesis is, muscles that contract weakly, to explain the septal wall hypokinesis, is the weakness of the septum in the heart. There are two types of septal wall hypokinesis namely, atrial septal hypokinesis and ventricle septal hypokinesis.
Atrial septal hypokinesis means a hole in the septum that divides the upper chambers and is present at the time of birth, also known as congenital heart hypokinesis. This means that a baby can develop this heart condition if the hole does not close by itself during pregnancy or after giving birth. The causes behind this are unknown however medical professionals have suggested that some of the possible causes can be any kind of changes in the genes, or what
the mother comes in contact with within the environment and the eating habits during the pregnancy that can bring changes in the genes.
Ventricular septal hypokinesis is a similar concept to the atrial septal defect, a hole in the septum, however, hole in the septum that divides the lower chambers of the heart. This hypokinesis is also congenital, meaning, it occurs in babies during pregnancy or right after birth. This happens when the wall fails to fully develop resulting in the mixing of the oxygenated blood and deoxygenated blood, pressuring the heart to work harder. It is said that there can be more than one Ventricular septal hypokinesis in the wall. The reasons behind the cause of this can be genes, family history, what the mother eats and drinks, and problems such as Down syndrome.
The diagnosis for atrial septal hypokinesis or defect is screening tests during pregnancy to keep a check on any birth defects, Ultrasound to check for holes. Listening to the heartbeat to detect a murmur through the stethoscope. The size of the hole and location can vary, in some cases, the symptoms might not be seen, or the holes can close up by themselves over time, however, in some cases, surgeries might be required. Many a time because there are no symptoms at an early age, the holes might slowly grow over years and the symptoms can show up later on. The treatment for this varies depending on the age, size of the hole, and the seriousness of the symptoms.
Treating ventricular septal hypokinesis is almost similar, various imaging tests are done such as echocardiogram, electrocardiogram, chest radiography, cardiac catheterization, and pulse oximetry. These tests are done to produce the heart image, check on the size of the hole, determine the function of the heart, detect the oxygen levels, and so on. These tests then provide a clear picture of the next steps to follow in the treatment. The treatment again depends on the size of the hole, age, and symptoms. They might close up by themselves or surgery might be required. Either way medical professionals will ensure that the patient leads a healthy long life. Continuous scanning and check-ups help with the treatment.
- https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/ventricular-septal-defect/symptoms- causes/syc-20353495
- https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/ventricular-septal-defect/diagnosis- treatment/drc-20353501
- https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/atrial-septal-defect/symptoms-causes/syc- 20369715